- L. Abbott. Active Acting: Exercises and
Improvisations Leading to Performance. Star Publishing Company: Belmont,
CA, 1987. See also: Johnstone, 1992; Nachmanovitch, 1991.
- E. Andre, Ed. Notes of the IJCAI-97 Symposium on
Animated Interface Agents: Making Them Intelligent, Nagoya, Japan, Aug.
1997. Representative survey of current work on animated agents,
covering issues in effective presentation, affective modeling, social
impact, and character design. See also: Lester et al., 1997; Elliott et
- N. Badler, "Real-Time Virtual Humans," in
Proc. 1997 Pacific Graphics Conf., Seoul, Korea, 1997. Survey of issues
in creating real-time animated human figures, with focus on design of Jack
architecture and discussion of systems that employ it. Used by: Rickel
and Johnson, 1997. See also: Smith et al., 1997.
- G. Ball, D. Kurlander, J. Miller, D. Pugh, T.
Skelly, A. Stankosky, D. Thiel, M. Van Dantzich, and T. Wax,
"Lifelike Computer Characters: the Persona Project at Microsoft
Research," in Software Agents, J. Bradshaw, Ed. AAAI Press: Menlo
Park, CA, 1997. Overview of Microsoft work on building animated,
conversational assistants. Focus on Peedy, a parrot that processes spoken
requests for music. Emphasis on technical issues (e.g., voice
recognition, animation, etc.). See: Lester et al., 1997b; Rist et al.,
- J. Bates, A. B. Loyall, and W. S. Reilly,
"Integrating Reactivity, Goals, and Emotion in a Broad Agent,"
in Proc. 14th Ann. Conf. of the Cognitive Science Society,
Bloomington, IN, July 1992. Describes the Oz architecture, especially
the interface between its emotion model and action-selection system.
Brief, but useful introduction to issues in the use of emotion to drive
behavior. Elaborated in: Bates et al., 1992b.
- J. Bates, A. B. Loyall, and W. S. Reilly,
"An Architecture for Action, Emotion, and Social Behavior,"
Tech. Report CMU-CS-92-142, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon
University, Pittsburgh, July 1992. Describes the Oz architecture,
including its reactive action planner (Hap) and emotion model (Em).
Analyzes a sample interaction between a user and Lyotard, an agent with
simple emotional intelligence. Good introduction to technical problems of
building emotional intelligence. Extends: Bates et al., 1992a.
- J. Bates, "The Nature of Characters in
Interactive Worlds and The Oz Project," Tech. Report CMU-CS-92-200,
School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Oct.
1992. Summarizes the Oz project's motivation and goals. Discusses
possible types of interaction between users and believable agents.
Primarily of historical interest.
- J. Bates, "The role of emotion in
believable agents," in Comm. of the ACM, vol. 37(7), pp. 122-125,
July 1994. Summarizes techniques Disney animators used to convey
emotion in animated characters. Illustrates derivative heuristics for
interactive agents with the "Edge of Intention" system. Widely
cited introduction to artistic antecedents and resources for technical
audience. See: Thomas and Johnson, 1981.
- B. Blumberg, "Action-Selection in
Hamsterdam: Lessons from Ethology," in Proc. Third Int. Conf. on
Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, Brighton, England, 1994. Presents
computational model of agent behavior based on biological factors, e.g.
hunger, fear. Interesting alternative to psychological and artistic
- B. Blumberg, "Old Tricks, New Dogs: Ethology and Interactive Creatures." Ph.D. Thesis, Media Lab., Massachusetts Inst. Technol., Cambridge, MA, 1996. Presents an ethnologically-inspired architecture for synthetic
characters. "Silas T. Dog" incorporates virtual vision,
learning, and simple goals/motivations in animated agent. First chapter
provides excellent motivation for building believable characters in
general. Extends: Blumberg, 1994.
- P. Curtis, "Mudding Social Phenomena in
Text-Based Virtual Realities," in Proc. 1992 Conf. on Directions and
Applications of Advanced Computing, Berkeley, CA, May 1992. Describes
the origin and user activities of LambdaMOO, the most famous of the
text-based virtual worlds. Focuses on social phenomena, e.g. community
building, interpersonal relations, conflict resolution. Widely cited
- P. Doyle and B. Hayes-Roth, "Guided
exploration of virtual worlds," in Network and Netplay: Virtual
Groups on the Internet, F. Sudweeks, Ed. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 1997.
Introduces concept of "annotated environments" that encode
structured domain descriptions in virtual worlds for use by intelligent
agents. Emphasis on increasing agent believability through enhancing
domain intelligence. Sample dialogs in educational children's
environment. Extended by : Doyle and Hayes-Roth, 1998. See also: Norman,
- P. Doyle and B. Hayes-Roth, "Annotating
Virtual Worlds," in Proc. 1998 Virtual Worlds and Simulation Conf.,
San Diego, CA, Jan. 1998, pp. 195-200. Details of possible annotations
of virtual spaces to support believable agent intelligence. Draws
parallels with HCI concepts of affordance and natural design. Several
examples drawn from educational text world. Extends: Doyle and Hayes-Roth
1997a. See also: Norman 1993.
- C. Dyer, "Interpersonal goals and
satisfaction with interactions." Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of
Communications, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, 1993. Provides evidence
that people seek out more interaction with people whose personalities
complement (rather than resemble) their own. Complementary means opposite
on dominance/submissiveness axis and similar on affiliation
- L. Egri, The Art of Dramatic Writing. Simon
& Schuster: New York, 1949. Discussion of effective techniques for
writing drama, particularly applicable to scripts and
- C. Elliott, "The Affective Reasoner: A
Process Model of Emotions in a Multi-Agent System." Ph.D. Thesis,
The Institute for the Learning Sciences, Northwestern Univ., 1992.
Thesis presents comprehensive computational model of emotion and
reasoning system based on work of Ortony, Clore, and Collins. Agents
reason about one another through emotional models, including expectation,
conflicting emotion, and relationships. Widely cited system. Extended
by: Elliott, 1993; Elliott, 1997a, 1997b. See also: Elliott, 1995;
- C. Elliott, "Using the affective reasoner
to support social simulations," in Proc. 13th Int. Joint
Conf. on Artif. Intell., Chambery, France, Aug. 1993. Summarizes
Affective Reasoner architecture. Discusses issues involved in creating
distinct emotional personalities in that system. Demonstrates both
flexibility and limitations of system and underlying theory. Best
high-level technical view of Affective Reasoner. Extends: Elliott,
- C. Elliott, "Research problems in the use
of a shallow Artificial Intelligence model of personality and
emotion," in Proc. 12th Natl. Conf. on Artif. Intell.,
Seattle, WA, Aug. 1995, pp. 9-15. Presents open research issues in
building computational models of emotion. Examples of affective user
modeling and using emotions to model relationships. Argument for
emotional intelligence to create believable characters. Extensive
references to literature.
- C. Elliott, J. Lester, and J. Rickel,
"Integrating Affective Computing into Animated Tutoring Agents,"
in Notes of the IJCAI '97 Workshop on Animated Interface Agents: Making
Them Intelligent, Nagoya, Japan, Aug. 1997, pp. 113-121. Describes
approaches to integrating Affective Reasoner into existing agent systems.
Examples of enhancing didactic value of characters through use of emotion.
Creatively ties together three large projects. In: Andre, 1997. See
also: Lester et al., 1996; Rickel and Johnson, 1997.
- C. Elliott, "I Picked Up Catapia and Other
Stories: A Multimodal Approach to Expressivity for 'Emotionally
Intelligent' Agents," in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on
Autonomous Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, Feb. 1997, pp. 451-457. Study
using emotional expressivity to disambiguate spoken speech. Emotionally
intelligent agents outperform human actors in clearly conveying intended
emotions. Interesting motivation for incorporating emotion into agents
beyond characters. Expands on: Elliott, 1992.
- C. Elliott, "Hunting for the Holy Grail
with ‘emotionally intelligent’ virtual actors," to appear in ACM
Intelligence. Presents broad, shallow emotional model for building
entertainment agents. Examples of affective impact in storytelling.
Describes "virtual actor" experiments with Affective Reasoner.
Broadest survey of Elliott's work. Extends: Elliott, 1997a.
- S. Fiske and S. Taylor, Social Cognition.
McGraw-Hill: New York, 1991. Chapter 7 discusses people’s desire to
use schemas in dealing with one another in order to predict/understand
- L. Foner, "What's An Agent, Anyway? A
Sociological Case Study," Agents Memo 93-01, M.I.T. Media Lab.,
Massachusetts Inst. Technol., Cambridge, MA, May 1993. Categorizes
agency in terms of social abilities and groundedness in context. Lengthy
transcripts of an agent, Julia, interacting with users in a text-based
virtual world. Emphasis on believability. A classic paper on agency and
- D. Goleman, Emotional Intelligence. Bantam
Books: New York, 1997. Defines and compares rational vs. emotional
behavior. Explores skills of "emotional intelligence," and
argues it is key to human success, rather than simply rational
- B. Hayes-Roth, L. Brownston, R. Huard, B. Lent,
and E. Sincoff, "Directed improvisation," Tech. Report
KSL-94-61, Knowledge Systems Lab., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, Sept.
1994. Implementation and operations of directed improvisation system.
Description of agent designs in CAIT. Best introduction to early Virtual
- B. Hayes-Roth, "Directed Improvisation: A
New Paradigm for Computer Games," in Proc. 9th Computer
Game Developers' Conf., Santa Clara, Apr. 1995, pp. 36-43. Application
of Virtual Theater "improv puppets" to computer games. Overview
of CAIT system describes potential uses of semi-autonomous characters as
avatars or other characters in games. See also: Hayes-Roth and van Gent,
- B. Hayes-Roth, "Agents on Stage: Advancing
the State of the Art in AI," in Proc. 1995 Int. Joint Conf. on Artif.
Intell., Montreal, Canada, Aug. 1995, pp. 967-971. Argument that AI
should take a comprehensive approach to building intelligent agents, and
that interactive characters is a promising area as it demands integration
of all major components. Position paper rather than technical.
- B. Hayes-Roth, R. v. Gent, and D. Huber,
"Acting in character," in Creating Personalities for Synthetic
Actors, R. Trappl and P. Petta, Eds. Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1997.
Casts improvisational drama in computational terms. Detailed
examination of master-servant status scenarios according to personality
and status variations of autonomous characters. Good bridge between
improvisation literature and computation.
- B. Hayes-Roth and R. van Gent,
"Improvisational Puppets, Actors, and Avatars," in Proc.
Computer Game Developers' Conf., Santa Clara, 1996, pp. 199-208.
Applications of improvisational computer puppets and actors to computer
gaming. Discussion of "improv avatars" as intelligent
combination of computer- and user-control of avatars in multi-player
environments. Speculations about future avatar design. See also:
- B. Hayes-Roth and R. van Gent,
"Story-Making with Improvisational Puppets," in Proc.
1st Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, Feb.
1997, pp. 1-7. Short survey of Virtual Theater work on "improv
puppets." Brief summary of developmental psychology experiments using
puppets, relation to other Virtual Theater work. See also: Hayes-Roth et
- B. Hayes-Roth, L. Brownston, and R. van Gent,
"Multiagent collaboration in directed improvisation," in Proc.
1st Int. Conf. on Multi-Agent Systems, San Francisco, 1995;
Reprinted in Readings in Agents, M. Huhns and M. Singh, Eds.
Morgan-Kaufmann: San Francisco, 1997. Presents directed improvisation;
users influence but do not control autonomous, emotional agents.
Description of agents in CAIT system. Collaborative storytelling under
dynamic user constraints. Reprinted.
- B. Hayes-Roth, "Mask and Cyber Mask,"
in Proc. Computer Game Developers’ Conf., Santa Clara, CA, 1997.
Reviews traditional concepts of Mask as a source of manifestation of
both persona and animus. Discusses techniques for creating Cyber Mask,
incorporating these elements, to facilitate people’s role-play in online
- B. Hayes-Roth, G. Ball, C. Lisetti, R. Picard,
A, Stern. "Affect and Emotion in the User Interface," in Proc.
Conf. on Intell. User Interfaces, San Francisco, Jan. 1998, pp. 91-96.
Panel position papers discuss the role of affect in both perception and
expression of behavior.
- A. Horton. Writing the character-centered
screenplay. University of California Press: Berkeley, CA, 1994.
Process and recommendations for developing strong characters, then
building a narrative around them. Draws examples from contemporary
- R. D. Huard and B. Hayes-Roth, "Children's
collaborative playcrafting," Tech. Report KSL-96-17, Knowledge
Systems Lab., Stanford Univ. Stanford, CA, May 1996. An examination of
children's social interactions on a computerized story activity. Analyzed
the user's interaction style and how it affected the learning process.
Good discussion on future directions for research in children's
collaborative computer work. See also: Huard, 1996b; Hayes-Roth and van
- R. D. Huard and B. Hayes-Roth, "Children's
play with improvisational puppets," Tech. Report KSL-96-27, Knowledge
Systems Lab., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, Nov. 1996. Examines the
importance of play and storycrafting experiences in children's learning
and development. Provides criteria for creating intrinsically motivating
learning environments for young children using interactive storytelling
and autonomous puppets. See also: Hayes-Roth and van Gent, 1997.
- R. Huard, and B. Hayes-Roth. "Character
mastery with improvisational puppets," in Notes of the IJCAI ’97
Workshop on Animated Interface Agents, Nagoya, Japan, Aug. 1997, pp.
85-90. Experimental study of children’s play with three kinds of toys:
commercial art software, traditional puppets, and improvisational puppets
that have animate minds and animated bodies. Results show that children
enjoy all three kinds of toys, but only play with improvisational improves
their master of characters and their performance on associated measures of
social understanding, story comprehension, and storycrafting.
- K. Isbister. "Personality in Interactive
Computer Characters: The Importance of Consistency," unpublished
manuscript. Reports evidence that people prefer consistent personality
traits to inconsistent personality traits, even when the consistent value
is not preferred. Consistency refers to similarity of passive/dominant
mode in verbal and physical behaviors. See also: Isbister and
- K. Isbister, and B. Hayes-Roth. Social
Interaction with Characters. Submitted to J. of Applied AI, Special Issue
on Animated Interface Agents, 1998. Analysis of transcripts from web
site visitors interacting with an animate character, Erin the Bartender.
Results indicate that a character’s role-appropriate behavior can induce
role-appropriate behavior in users.
- W. James, Psychology. Holt: New York, 1900.
Classic, comprehensive view of the science of psychology. Introduces
concepts and terminology in general use today. Still widely
- L. Johnson and B. Hayes-Roth, Eds. Proc.
1st Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, Feb.
1997. Broad survey of current work on autonomous agents, but several
sessions focus specifically on believable agents and actors. Good general
view of current work.
- K. Johnstone, IMPRO: Improvisation and the
Theater. Routledge: New York, 1992. Describes issues and methods in
improvisational theater. Presents clear theory for modeling certain
improvisational interactions. Excellent background reading for issues in
- C. Jones, Chuck Amuck: The Life and Times of an
Animated Cartoonist. Avon Books: New York, 1990. Biography of author of
Road Runner cartoons et al. Survey and anecdotes of character design,
early problems and evolved solutions in creating believable animated
characters. Widely cited artistic reference. See also: McCloud, 1993;
Thomas and Johnson, 1981.
- E. Jones, Interpersonal Perception. W. H.
Freeman & Co.: New York, 1990. Discusses the psychological effects
of social interaction, with particular emphasis on how humans influence
and are influenced by perceptions of others; significance of context in
social perception; "expectancy effects" in interactions. See
also: Dyer, 1993; Fiske and Taylor, 1991; James, 1900.
- M. T. Kelso, P. Weyhrauch, and J. Bates,
"Dramatic Presence," PRESENCE: The Journal of Teleoperators and
Virtual Environments, vol. 1(1), pp. 133-138, 1992. Preliminary paper
on the Oz project. Introduces concept of "interactive drama,"
theory of plot construction, principles of interactive story design.
Describes real-world tests measuring engagement in acted stories with
limited sophistication, including transcripts and commentary. Best paper
motivati ng principles of the Oz project.
- H. Kitano, Ed. Notes of the 1996 AAAI Workshop
on Entertainment and AI/A-Life, Portland, OR, Aug. 1996. Range of
papers on entertainment issues not limited to agents; include theater,
pedagogy, logical formalisms for believability, environments to support
characters, social aspects of AI. Some unusual points of view. See also:
- J. Lasseter, "Principles of traditional
animation applied to 3D animation," in Proc. SIGGRAPH '87, Anaheim,
FL, July 1987, pp. 35-44. Summary of Disney animation principles and
explanation of how they apply to computationally generated 3D believable
characters. Examples and images drawn from "Luxo Jr." short
film et al. Excellent bridge between traditional and computational
character animation. See also: Pixar, 1986; Thomas and Johnston,
- B. Laurel, "Interface Agents: Metaphors
with Character," in The Art of Human-Computer Interaction Design, B.
Laurel, Ed. Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA, 1990. Presents key
characteristics of interface agents. Examines arguments pro and con;
emphasis on anthropomorphism, dramatic character of agents. Considers
motivations for building such agents. See also: Laurel, 1993.
- B. Laurel, Computers as Theatre.
Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA, 1993. Explores metaphor of computer as
theatrical device. Computational context for engagement, drama, story.
Widely cited support for interactive agents in computing.
- J. Lester, M. O'Leary, and B. Stone,
"Animated Pedagogical Agents for Intelligent Edutainment," in
Notes of the AAAI Workshop on Entertainment and AI/ALife, Portland, OR,
Aug. 1996, pp. 44-49. Describes method for sequencing believable
behaviors amidst pedagogical activities. Categorizes kinds of behaviors
by sensory impact; provides algorithm for sequencing. Illuminating
approach to integrating believability with substantive acts. Extended by:
Stone and Lester, 1996; Lester and Stone, 1997a.
- J. Lester and B. Stone, "Increasing
Believability in Animated Pedagogical Agents," in Proc.
1st Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, Feb.
1997, pp. 16-21. Details of action-selection in
"Design-A-Plant" system via competition-based approach. Defines
criteria for techniques to enhance believability in actions of pedagogical
agents. Novel approach emphasizing sensory impact of actions. Extends:
Lester et al., 1996.
- J. Lester, S. Converse, S. Kahler, T. Barlow,
B. Stone, and R. Bhogal, "The Persona Effect: Affective Impact of
Animated Pedagogical Agents," in Proc. CHI '97 Conf., Atlanta, GA,
Mar. 1997. Large-scale user testing of believable pedagogical character
in "Design-A-Plant" system. Details of study concluding
personality and character enhance user engagement and retention of learned
material. See also: Lester et al., 1996; Lester and Stone, 1997a.
- J. Lester, J. Voerman, S. Towns, and C.
Callaway, "Cosmo: A Life-Like Animated Pedagogical Agent with Deictic
Believability," in Notes of the IJCAI '97 Workshop on Animated
Interface Agents: Making Them Intelligent, Nagoya, Japan, 1997, pp. 61-70.
Presents framework for building believable pedagogical agents. Emphasis
on "deictic believability," ability to refer to objects and
entities in context of discourse. Examples of planning deixis in Internet
tutoring system "Cosmo."
- A. B. Loyall and J. Bates, "Hap: A
Reactive, Adaptive Architecture for Agents," Tech. Report
CMU-CS-91-147, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, June 1991. High-level technical description of Hap
architecture underlying Oz agents. Plan memory, theory of activity.
Comparison to other agent architectures. Best technical summary of Oz
- Lucasfilm Ltd. Computer Graphics Division, The
Adventures of Andre and Wally B., (film), 1984. Early
computer-animated short film. Attempt to apply traditional animation
principles in computer graphics. Largely of historical interest. See
also: Lasseter, 1987; Pixar, 1986.
- P. Maes, T. Darrell, B. Blumberg, and A.
Pentland, "The ALIVE System: Full-body Interaction with Autonomous
Agents," in Proc. Computer Animation '95 Conf., Geneva, Switzerland,
Apr. 1995. Presents ALIVE system for wireless full-body interaction
between humans and animated virtual agents. Approach to interface through
video sensing and wall-sized display without intrusive hardware.
Interesting alternative approach to building immersive
- P. Maes, "Artificial Life Meets
Entertainment: Interacting with Lifelike Autonomous Agents," in Comm.
of the ACM, vol. 38(11), pp. 108-114, Nov. 1995. Summarizes research in
lifelike agent systems as distinct from believable agent systems.
Overview of ALIVE project and tools for physical interactivity with
virtual agents. Widely cited, general if brief survey. Details in: Maes
et al., 1995a.
- H. Maldonado, A. Picard, P. Doyle, and B.
Hayes-Roth, "Tigrito: A Multi-Mode Interactive Improvisational
Agent," in Proc. 1998 Int. Conf. on Intelligent User Interfaces, San
Francisco, CA, Jan. 1998, pp. 29-32. Describes implementation of
Tigrito, an affective computer pet. System supports several modes of
interaction with characters (avatar, disembodied, "movie" mode).
Focus is effectiveness of different modes at producing a sense of
- M. Mauldin, "ChatterBots, TinyMUDs, and
the Turing test: Entering the Loebner prize competition," in Proc.
12th Natl. Conf. on Artif. Intell., Seattle, WA, July 1994, pp.
16-21. Description of ChatterBot "Julia," a MUD agent
capable of limited conversation. Details conversational model and
response design. Analysis of interaction in a limited Turing test, with
comparisons to ELIZA and PARRY. Provides useful insights into heuristics
for conversational believability. See also: Curtis, 1992; Weizenbaum,
- S. McCloud, Understanding Comics: The Invisible
Art. HarperPerrenial: New York, 1993. Introduction to comic strip
design. Discusses details of presentation, image emphasis, separation of
text and graphics, focus, and flow. Excellent alternative view of
interface, story, and believability. See also: Thomas and Johnson, 1981;
- Y. Moon, "Can computer personalities be
human personalities?" in Int. Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol.
43, pp. 223-239, 1995. Summarizes evidence that people prefer
individuals with personality attributes similar to their own. Includes
review of studies of a range of relationships, e.g. marital satisfaction,
roommate relationships, interest in strangers.
- J. Murray, Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future
of Narrative in Cyberspace. The Free Press: New York, 1997. Examination
of interactive narrative as a medium. Computational limitations,
interface design issues, and problems of creating satisfying interactive
experiences. Ties together narrative theory and computer-designed
experiment. Conceptual rather than technical.
- S. Nachmanovitch. Free Play: Improvisation in
Life and Art. Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc.: Los Angeles, 1991. Explores the
origins of the creative process, arguing that improvisation is the key to
creative expression. Broadly motivating, non-technical.
- C. Nass, J. Steuer, and E. Tauber,
"Computers are Social Actors," in Proc. CHI '94 Conf., Boston,
MA, Apr. 1994. Introduces thesis that interaction with computers is
fundamentally social. Brief analysis of experiments in which users work
with and then evaluate computer tutoring systems. Often cited
psychological justification for character-based interfaces. Expanded by:
Nass et al., 1995.
- C. Nass, Y. Moon, B. J. Fogg, B. Reees, and C.
Dryer, "Can computer personalities be human personalities?" in
Int. Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 43, pp. 223-239, 1995.
Study supporting thesis that people prefer to interact with others of
similar personality. Results indicate personality can be conveyed by
simple, superficial cues. Some summary of psychological literature.
Expands on: Nass et al., 1994.
- A. Newell. Unified Theories of Cognition.
Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 1990. Newell puts forth the
proposition that the field of AI should focus on building integrated
intelligent agents. He illustrates the goal and process with a detailed
report of his own group’s work on the Soar architecture.
- D. Norman, Things That Make Us Smart.
Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA, 1993. Emphasizes design of systems to
match human strengths, rather than adapting humans to computers. Many
concepts apply to design of spaces for intelligent characters. Widely
cited HCI reference. See also: Doyle and Hayes-Roth, 1998.
- T. Oren, G. Salomon, K. Krietman, and A. Don,
"Guides: Characterizing the Interface," in The Art of
Human-Computer Interface Design, B. Laurel, Ed. Addison-Wesley: Reading,
MA, 1990. Describes personality-based interface to encyclopedic survey
of American history. Issues of designing personalities, incorporating
multiple guides with distinct interests, user response to distinct
characters, experiments in several presentation modes. Detailed
examination of how believable agents might be used in pedagogy. In:
- K. Perlin, "Real time responsive animation
with personality," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer
Graphics, vol. 1, 1995. Technical details of character animation
system. System is concerned with physics and dynamics of representing
animated characters, rather than internal motivation. Extended in:
- K. Perlin and A. Goldberg, "Improv: A
System for Scripting Interactive Actors in Virtual Worlds," Computer
Graphics, vol. 29, 1996. Presents an authoring system for movement and
action of graphical characters. Behavior engine uses simple scripting
language to control cues, character behaviors; animation engine translates
programmed canonical motions into natural noisy movement. Focus on
physical action without high-level intelligent control. Used in:
Hayes-Roth et al., 1996. Related work: Badler 1997.
- R. Picard, Affective Computing. MIT Press:
Boston, MA, 1997. Argues the need for emotion in computing
applications. Describes design requirements of emotional computers,
technical and social issues of affective computing, instances of fielded
- Pixar, Luxo Jr., (film), 1986. Classic
short film about adventures of two animated lamps. Excellent example of
animation principles in practice; extremely believable characters despite
lack of facial features or speech. See also: Lasseter, 1987; Walt Disney
- B. Reeves and C. Nass, The Media Equation: How
People Treat Computers, Televisions, and New Media Like Real People and
Places. Cambridge University Press: New York, 1996. Full treatment of
thesis that people treat computers as social entities. Extensive material
drawn from psychological experiments, analysis. Extends: Nass et al.,
1994; Nass et al., 1995.
- W. S. Reilly, "The Art of Creating
Emotional and Robust Interactive Characters," in Working Notes of the
AAAI Spring Symposium on Interactive Story Systems, Stanford, CA, 1995.
Briefly presents the major issues in character design. Displaying
emotions, robustness, scale of interactivity. Short but
- W. S. N. Reilly, "Believable Social and
Emotional Agents." Ph.D. Thesis, School of Computer Science, Carnegie
Mellon University, 1996. Describes details of Em emotional model,
illustrated with user testing over several scenarios with multiple
autonomous emotional agents. Summary of character design methods and
heuristics used. See also: Bates et al., 1992b; Bates 1993.
- W. S. Reilly, "A Methodology for Building
Believable Social Agents," in Proc. First Int. Conf. on Autonomous
Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, Feb. 1997, pp. 114-121. Presents simple
approach for modeling believable characters. Provides transcripts and
analysis of user interactions to evaluate robustness and believability of
agents in testbed environment. More useful for conceptual approach than
practical results. Extended by: Reilly, 1996.
- B. Rhodes and P. Maes, "The Stage as a
Character: Automatic Creation of Acts of God for Dramatic Effect," in
Working Notes of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Interactive Story Systems,
Stanford, CA, 1995. Proposes a dramatic "stage manager" to
direct interactive storytelling with fully autonomous characters.
Examples with Three Little Pigs tale. High-level coordination is an
interesting contrast to the directed improvisation model. See also:
Rhodes, 1996; Hayes-Roth et al., 1994.
- B. Rhodes, "PHISH-Nets: Planning
Heuristically in Situated Hybrid Networks." Master's Thesis, Media
Lab., Massachusetts Inst. Technol., 1996. Presents architecture for
action-selection under multiple interacting goals. Architecture is used
to implement the "Big Bad Wolf" in several variations of the
Three Little Pigs tale. Describes technical details, models of character
and goals, and experimental outcomes. Significant attempt to build an
architecture for believable characters. See also: Rhodes and Maes,
- J. Rickel and W. L. Johnson, "Integrating
Pedagogical Capabilities in a Virtual Environment Agent," in Proc.
1st Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, Feb.
1997, pp. 30-38. Describes Steve, an animated, autonomous agent that
demonstrates procedural skills in a graphical environment. Agent may
appear in several forms depending on design needs. Uses the Jack
character architecture. See also: Badler 1997; Elliott et al., 1997;
- T. Rist, E. Andre, and J. Muller, "Adding
animated presentation agents to the interface," in Proc. Int. Conf.
on Intelligent User Interfaces, Orlando, FL, Jan. 1997, pp. 21-28.
Describes PPP Persona, a system for building animated characters to
present multimedia information. High-level overview; emphasis on
architecture rather than character behaviors. See also: Rickel and Lewis,
- D. Rousseau and B. Hayes-Roth,
"Personality in synthetic agents," Tech. Report KSL-96-21,
Knowledge Systems Lab., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, July 1997.
Describes model for building psychologies of intelligent actors, based
upon psychology, AI, and drama theory. Provides survey of supporting
research, outline of model, and examples of user interaction in
"Cybercafe" scenario. Extended by: Rousseau, 1997c.
- D. Rousseau and B. Hayes-Roth,
"Improvisational synthetic actors with flexible personalities,"
Tech. Report KSL-97-08, Knowledge Systems Lab., Stanford Univ., Stanford,
CA, Sept. 1997. Presents social-psychological model for character
interaction. Represents several characters using this approach, and
evaluates user interactions in the "Cybercafe" scenario.
Comprehensive description of a well-founded approach to character
mentality. Expands: Rousseau, 1997b.
- D. Rousseau and B. Hayes-Roth, "La
personalité dans les acteurs synthétiques," to appear
in Analyse de Systemes, 1998. Threads literature in psychology, AI, and
theater in discussion of computational improvisation. Description of
personality model and implementation in Cybercafe system. In French. See
also: Rousseau 1997a, Rousseau 1997c.
- N. M. Sgouros, P. Tsanakis, and G.
Papakonstantinou, "A Framework for Plot Control in Interactive Story
Systems," in Proc. 13th Natl. Conf. on Artif. Intell.,
Portland, OR, 1996. Briefly summarizes plot control architecture,
describing canonical character roles and how interactions are represented.
Interesting current work on building interactive stories.
- T. J. Smith, J. Shi, J. Granieri, and N.
Badler, "JackMOO: An Integration of Jack and LambdaMOO," in
Proc. Pacific Graphics 1997, Seoul, Korea, 1997. Describes integration
of Jack as an avatar animation system and LambdaMOO as a control platform
for creating virtual training scenarios. Technical details on client
design and interface between Jack and LambdaMOO. Novel approach for
combining proven technologies. See also: Badler, 1997; Rickel and Johnson,
- R. Sternberg and P. Ruzgis, Eds. Personality
and Intelligence. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1994.
- B. Stone and J. Lester, "Dynamically Sequencing
an Animated Pedagogical Agent," in Proc. 13th Natl. Conf.
on Artif. Intell., Portland, OR, Aug. 1996, pp. 424-431. Presents
approach to designing "behavior spaces" to subdivide agent
activities, and algorithms for sequencing an agent's actions within these
spaces. Distinguishes pedagogical from believable, intrusive from subtle,
and audio from video behaviors among others. Practical approach to
integrating believable with other kinds of actions. Extends: Lester and
- D. Tannen, You Just Don’t Understand: Women and
Men in Conversation. William Morrow & Co.: New York, 1990.
Examination of different communication styles men and women use; where
conflicts occur; approaches for improvement. Grounded in and with
reference to linguistic and sociological research. See also: Tannen,
- D. Tannen, Talking From 9 to 5: Women and Men in
the Workplace: Language, Sex, and Power. Avon Books: New York, 1997.
Analysis of communication in the workplace, with focus on social and
cultural impediments to communication. See also: Tannen, 1990.
- F. Thomas and O. Johnston, The Illusion of
Life: Disney Animation. Hyperion Books: New York, 1981. Comprehensive
guide to history of Disney animation. Illustrates principles for creating
"illusion of life" in character presentation and animation, with
emphasis on evolution of techniques. Widely cited guide to artistic
principles amenable to computational modeling. See also: Jones, 1990;
- R. Trappl and P. Petta, Eds. Creating
Personalities for Synthetic Actors. Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1996.
Compilation of papers from major research groups on personality,
physical embodiment, emotion and action-selection in autonomous
characters. Some emphasis on physical rather than cognitive aspects of
personality. A good survey of current work, particularly
- M. A. Walker, J. E. Cahn, and S. J. Whittaker,
"Improvising Linguistic Style: Social and Affective Bases of Agent
Personality," in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Autonomous
Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, Feb. 1997, pp. 96-105. Presents details of
system for improvising specific forms of character utterances based on
mood, personality, and social status. Provides examples of variability in
"Casablanca" dialog. Interesting approach to generating vocal
behaviors based upon social models of interaction. See also: Elliott,
- Walt Disney Productions, Snow White, (film),
1937. The world's first full-length animated film. Early example of
then-new Disney animation principles used to make cartoon characters with
depth and life. A classic. See also: Lasseter 1987.
- Walt Disney Productions, Toy Story, (film),
1995. First full-length computer animated cartoon. Disney principles
applied to graphic design. Comparable to "Snow White" for
redefining animated film. See also: Lasseter, 1987; Thomas and Johnston,
1981; Walt Disney Productions, 1937.
- J. Weizenbaum, "ELIZA – A Computer Program
for the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man and
Machine," in Comm. of the ACM, vol. 9(1), pp. 36-45, 1966.
Describes ELIZA, a text-based interactive Rogerian psychologist.
Emphasis is on issues of parsing and text generation, not believability.
Classic reference for early character design. See also: Foner, 1993;
- P. Zimbardo and M. Leippe, The Psychology of
Attitude Change and Social Influence. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1991.
Describes many techniques—intentional and unintentional—that people use
to influence one another.