Reference: Clancey, W. J. Qualitative Student Models. 1986.
Abstract: Instructional programs were among the earliest applications of computer programming. The original vision remains strong today: Instruction by computer offers the potential of better attention to individual student needs and interests than can be met in the typical classroom. Individualized instruction, modeled after the idea of a private tutor, allows a student to proceed at his own pace, to explore his interests, and to receive personal, detailed evaluation and direction (Crowder 1962, Suppes 1979). Realized as an interactive computer program, such instruction might be more effective, faster, and possibly less costly than traditional teaching. In addition, computer technology provides opportunities for new forms of instruction based on interactive graphics and programming itself, which foster intuition for abstract and creative thinking (Papert 1980, Brown 1983, diSessa 1984). The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive, but critical review of qualitative student models. A student model is the set of records in an instructional program that describe a student's knowledge about what is being taught and allow the prgram to adapt its presentations to his needs. A qualitative student model as the focus of this review in order to compare alternative computational methods and to contrast domain requirements.